Canada's political system is based on that of the United Kingdom. It is a constitutional monarchy, composed of the Queen of Canada, who is officially represented by the Governor General (or by a lieutenant-governor at the provincial and territorial levels), and Parliament.

The federal Parliament consists of the Senate with 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and the House of Commons with 308 members elected by citizens. The Government originates in the elected House of Commons. According to the principle of constitutional monarchy, the Queen, therefore, rules but does not govern.

All ten provinces have unicameral system, elected legislatures headed by a Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of Canada. Each province also has a Lieutenant-Governor representing the Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada. The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of consultation with provincial governments in recent years. The Canadian Constitution is a mixture of unwritten conventions, written Acts and judicial decisions that together form the political system. It defines the jurisdiction and powers of the federal, provincial and territorial governments, each of which is responsible for the administration of its own elections.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the Canadian national police service and an agency of the Ministry of Public Safety Canada.

The RCMP is unique in the world since it is a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. They provide a total federal policing service to all Canadians and policing services under contract to the three territories, eight provinces (except Ontario and Quebec), more than 190 municipalities, 184 Aboriginal communities and three international airports. The RCMP is Canada's national police force, and it has earned an international reputation as one of the best in the world.

In terms of Justice, Canadians follow the Common law, which is used in all provinces except Quebec. It is based on principles that were developed in medieval England. The principles of Quebec's civil law was derived from the law of Roman Empire, and reflect many of the precepts of French law. These traditions form the basis of Canada's legal heritage and changes overtime to meet Canadian needs. The courts interpret the law in a way that reflects changing conditions and circumstances.

Canada's Constitution is the supreme law of the country, and it establishes the framework for the system of law and justice.