Canada's political system is based on that of the United Kingdom.
It is a constitutional monarchy, composed of the Queen of Canada, who is
officially represented by the Governor General (or by a
lieutenant-governor at the provincial and territorial levels), and
The federal Parliament consists of the Senate with 105 members
appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime
Minister, and the House of Commons with 308 members elected by citizens.
The Government originates in the elected House of Commons. According to
the principle of constitutional monarchy, the Queen, therefore, rules
but does not govern.
All ten provinces have unicameral system, elected legislatures
headed by a Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of
Canada. Each province also has a Lieutenant-Governor representing the
Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada. The
Lieutenant-Governor is appointed on the recommendation of the Prime
Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of consultation with
provincial governments in recent years.
The Canadian Constitution is a mixture of unwritten conventions,
written Acts and judicial decisions that together form the political
system. It defines the jurisdiction and powers of the federal,
provincial and territorial governments, each of which is responsible for
the administration of its own elections.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the Canadian national police
service and an agency of the Ministry of Public Safety Canada.
The RCMP is unique in the world since it is a national, federal,
provincial and municipal policing body. They provide a total federal
policing service to all Canadians and policing services under contract
to the three territories, eight provinces (except Ontario and Quebec),
more than 190 municipalities, 184 Aboriginal communities and three
international airports. The RCMP is Canada's national police force, and
it has earned an international reputation as one of the best in the
In terms of Justice, Canadians follow the Common law, which is used
in all provinces except Quebec. It is based on principles that were
developed in medieval England. The principles of Quebec's civil law was
derived from the law of Roman Empire, and reflect many of the precepts
of French law. These traditions form the basis of Canada's legal
heritage and changes overtime to meet Canadian needs. The courts
interpret the law in a way that reflects changing conditions and
Canada's Constitution is the supreme law of the country, and it establishes the framework for the system of law and justice.