Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the East to the Pacific Ocean in the West and Northward into the Arctic Ocean. By total area of 9,984,9870 kilometers square (including its waters), Canada is the second largest country in the world?after Russia?and largest on the continent. It has a total land area of 9 093 507 kilometres square while the rest is 891 163 square kilometres as fresh water and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest. The country¡¯s land stretches 4 634 kilometres North to South from Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut to Middle Island in Lake Erie, Ontario. While its widest distance east to west is 5 514 kilometres from Cape Spear, Newfoundland and Labrador, to the Yukon Territory - Alaska boundary. The capital of Canada is Ottawa found in the province of Ontario.

The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata , meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier toward the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada.

Motto A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin) ¡°From Sea to Sea¡±
National Anthem ¡°O Canada¡±
Royal Anthem ¡°God Save the Queen¡±
Capital Ottawa
Largest City Toronto
Official Language English, French
Regional Languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Cree, Dene S?©©ine, Gwich¡¯in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey, T©©?ch Yatii
Ethnic Groups British, French, Irish, German, Italian, Aboriginal peoples, others
Demonym Canadian
Government Parliamentary, Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy, having a Federal System
Monarch Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Present)
Governor General Michaelle Jean (Present)
Prime Minister Stephen Harper (Present)
Establishment British North America Acts(July 1, 1867); Statute of Westminster(December 11, 1931); Canada Act(April 17, 1982)
  • 2006 Census (31,612,897)

  • 2008 Estimate (33,413,000)

  • Density: 3.2sq km or 8.3 sq mi

    • Population of Main Cities:
      Toronto (5.03 million), Montreal (3.55 million), Vancouver (2.12 million), Ottawa-Hull, the National Capital Region (2.12 million).

      Median Age:
      TOTAL= 39.5 years; Male= 38.6 years; Female= 40.4 years
    Currency Dollar ($) CAD (Canadian Dollar is divided into 100 cents)
    Gross Domestic Product Purchasing Power Parity:
    2007 Estimate ? TOTAL $1.269 Trillion; Per Capita $38,613

    2007 Estimate ? TOTAL $1.436 Trillion; Per Capita $43,674

    Canada Maps
    Birth rate 10.5 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
    Death rate 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
    Net migration rate 6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
    Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
    Infant mortality rate 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
    Life expectancy total population: 79.83 years
    male: 76.44 years
    female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)
    Total fertility rate 1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

    The leading Canadian cities are Toronto (5.03 million), Montreal (3.55 million), Vancouver (2.12 million), Ottawa-Hull, the National Capital Region (2.12 million).